Wednesday, December 29, 2010

Software Requirements for Animation

The following software capabilities are highly desirable in a multimedia computer system with animation facility:

  1. Animation creation software: - It allows the user to create animation sequences from scratch by using a mouse and various simple objects, such as lines, circles and polygons, with various supporting colors. For example, an animation sequence to illustrate bouncing of a ball can be created as follows-

    • Select a circle object and fill it with red color.

    • Then start the recorder of the animation creation software.

    • Then select the colored circle and drag it around the screen by using a mouse, recording several positions for it on the screen (each time you release the mouse button, you record the object’s position on the screen.

    • Finally, stop the recorder and use save command to save the animation.

  2. Screen capture software: - It is used to capture the displays of a computer screen as graphic images, which can be used in animation.

  3. Animation clips: - This is a library of animation clips from which one can select and directly import an animation clip and use it in a multimedia application, saving the time and effort, which might otherwise be required to create a similar animation clip. This is also useful. if one does not have an animation creation software. An animation clips library often provides the facility to add a new animation clip or delete an existing animation clip from the library.

  4. Animation file importing: - The task of creating a multimedia application incorporating animation can often be greatly simplified, if the application software can import animation files in some standard formats. Common animation file formats include.FLI and FLC.

  5. Software support for high resolution: - If the animation sequences of a multimedia application are made up of very high quality images, it is important to have not only the necessary hardware, but also software support for displaying high resolution images, which have many colors to maintain the high quality of animation display.

  6. Recording and playback capability: - It allows the user to control the recording and display of an animation sequence. For example, it provides the user with options to ‘pause’ and ‘replay’ the animation sequence.

  7. Transition effects: - Animation can be even more interesting, if it is enhanced with transition effects, such as fade-in and fade-out, layering, zooming and rotation of objects.

  8. For more Hardware Requirements click here

Hardware Requirements for Animation

Computer animation generally involves the following hardware devices.

  1. Image generation tools and devices, such as scanners, digital cameras, and video capture board interfaced to some standard video source, like video camera or video cassette recorder (VCR), are used to generate images to be used in animation.

  2. Computer monitors with image display capability is the minimum requirement for outputting (displaying) animation .In addition, multimedia computer systems capable for handling animation also require a graphics accelerator board, which not only controls the resolution and number of colors of display, but also speeds up the refresh rate. Refresh rate is the time taken to paint the computer screen with a new image frame, replacing the previous images frame. Increased speed, due to the use of graphics accelerator board, smoothes out the movement (avoids flickering of animation sequences) because subsequent frames, which make up the animation can be displayed quicker.
    For Software Reuirements for animation click here

What is animation

Computer animation deals with the generation, sequencing, and display of a set of images (called frames) to create an effect of visual change or motion, similar to a movie film (video).
Animation is an important component of multimedia, because just as a picture is a powerful way to illustrate information, a small animation clip is even more powerful and useful for illustrating concepts, which involve movement. For Example, in the multimedia application meant for educating small children an animation clip will be very effective in illustrating the difference in movement of a horse during a gallop versus a walk. Without animation, it will be very difficult to explain such concepts by using only still images and text. Similarly, in a multimedia application meant for teaching swimming, the proper way to swing hands for swimming can be more effectively illustrated with an animation as compared to images and textual description.
Animation is often confused with video may be because both deal with the display of a sequence of images to generate an effect of motion. However, animation is commonly used in those instances where videography is not possible, or animation can better illustrate the concept than video. For example, collision between two stars, or movement of planets around sun, cannot be video graphed, and hence, can be best illustrated with the help of an animation clip. Similarly, flow of blood in our arteries and veins, and pumping of blood by our heart can be best illustrated with the help of animation clip. Animation is also very commonly used in advertisements, cartoon films, video games, and virtual reality applications. Virtual reality is relatively new computer technology, using which, the user can put on a pair of goggles and a glove and tour a three-dimensional world that exists only in the computer, but appears realistic to the user.
Animation deals with displaying a sequence of images at a reasonable speed to create an impression of movement. For a jerk-free full motion animation,25 to 30 frames have to be displayed per second.
Hardware Requirements for animation.
Software Requirements for animation .

Wednesday, November 24, 2010

Multimedia components

Multimedia components


Alphanumeric characters are used to present information in the text form. Computers are widely used for text processing.

Hardware Requirements for Text

Text processing, with the use of multimedia computers, generally involves the following hardware devices.1. Keyboards are most commonly used to input text data.2. OCRs (Optical Recognizers) are used for direct input of printed text to computers.3. Computer screens are used to display text information.4. Printers are most commonly used to output text in hard copy form.

Software Requirements for Text

The following text processing capabilities are highly desirable in a multimedia computer system for better presentation and use for textual information.
Text editing. Text editors and word processing packages are used to generate, edit and properly layout a text document.

Text style.

Presentation of text information can be made more effective by using text of various sizes, fonts and styles .For example ,newspapers use a good combination of all these styles to better highlights more important news than less important ones. Similarly ,in a book like the one you are now reading, a combination of various text styles are used to put more emphasis on certain words or phrases than the remaining text.

Text searching.

Usage of text information can be greatly enhanced by text searching features. This feature allows the users to enter a word or phrase, and the computer quickly finds and displays that part of the text where the world or phrase appears in the textual information, with the world or phrase highlighted.


Both presentation and use of textual information can be greatly enhanced by using hypertext feature. This feature provides great flexibility of structuring and accessing computer based text information. It generalizes the concepts of “footnote” and “cross reference” of traditional anchor (a word or phrase linked to another document) within documents. An anchor is often called a “hotword”. This means, if the user wants more information about a particular hotword, he/she can select that hotword and open window with additional text explaining that word or phrase.

Text importing and exporting.

The task of creating a textual document can often be greatly simplified, if the document preparation software has text-importing feature. This is because some of the text you want to incorporate in your document may already exist as a file created by a word processor or a database file. The file can be simply imported into the new documents at the desired location, instead of retyping the entire text again. If the imported file is large, it will result in enormous saving of time and effort required to prepare the new documents. Similarly, text exporting feature is very useful in allowing other package to use an existing documents. For what is multimedia click here

What is a multimedia computer system?

What is a multimedia computer system?
A multimedia computer system is a computer system, which has the capability to integrate two or more types of media (text, graphics, images, audio, and video) for the purpose of generation, storage, representation, manipulation and access of multimedia information. In generate, the data size for multimedia information is much larger than textual information, because representation of graphics, animation, audio or video media in digital form requires much larger number of bits than that required for representation of plain text. Due to this, multimedia computer system requires:
Faster CPU (for quicker processing of larger amount of data).
Larger storage devices(for storing large data files),
Larger main memory(for running programs with large data size),
Good graphics terminal s(for displaying graphics, animation and video),and
Input/output devices required to play any audio associated with a multimedia application program.
All multimedia computer systems need not have all the features listed above. For example, a computer system, which does not have the capability to handle audio and video media can still be called a multimedia computer system, because it can still handle multiple media (text and graphics).However a full-fledged multimedia computer system must be capable of handling all types of media discussed above, and hence, must have all the features listed above.

Friday, November 19, 2010


A medium is something, which can be used for presentation of information .There are two basic ways to present some information.
1. Unimedium presentation. In this case, a single medium is used to present information. For example, a stereo system is a unimedium device, because it presents information by using only sound medium. Similarly, a book having only text is also a unimediaum device, because it presents information by using only text medium.
2. Multimedia presentation. In this case, more than one medium is used to present information. For example a TV system is a multimedia device, because it presents information by using sound and video media. Similarly, a book having both text and diagrams is also a multimedia device, because it presents information by using text, graphics and images.

Obviously, multimedia presentation of any information greatly enhances the comprehension capability of the user of the information because it involves the use of more of our sense. For example students in a class can understand a lecture better, if the lecturer draws illustrative diagrams on the board while delivering his/her lectures instead of using only voice explanation.
In case of computers system, the commonly used media for the purpose of storage, access and transmission of information are,

1. Text(alphanumeric characters)
2. Graphics(Line drawings and images)
3. Animation(Moving images)
4. Audio(sound)
5. Video(Videographer real –life events)

Hence in the computer world, multimedia refers to the use of more than one of the above listed media for information presentation to the computer users-such as text and sound.There are many problems to find that what is internet for more detail click here

What is Internet?

What is Internet?

The Internet is a huge network of computer, which links many different types of computers all over the world .It, is a network of network, which share a common mechanism for addressing computers, and a common set of communication protocols for communications between two computers on the network.


The Internet has its root in the ARPANET system the Advanced Rresearch Project Agency of the U.S.

Departments of Defense, ARPANET was the first WAN and had only four sites in 1986.The Internet evolved from the basic ideas of ARPANET for interconnecting computers, and was initially used by research organizations and universities to share and exchange information. In 1989, the U.S. Government lifted restrictions on the use of the Internet, and allowed it to be used for commercial purposes as well. Since then, the Internet has rapidly grown to become the world’s largest network. It now interconnects more than 30,000 networks, allowing more than 10 million computers, and more than 50 million computer users in more than 150 countries around the world to communicate with each other. The Internet continues to grow at a rapid pace.

Internet Basic Services

There are basically four types of services provided by the Internet to its users. These are given below.

1. Electronic Mail
2. File Transfer Protocol
3. Telnet
4. Usenet News

Wednesday, November 3, 2010

Usenet News Services

Usenet News

The Usenet service allows a group of Internet users to exchange their views/views/ideas/information on some command topic. Which is for interest to all the members belonging to the group? Several such groups exist on the Internet and are called newsgroups. For example, the newsgroup comp. Security .msc consists of users having interest in computer security issues.

A newsgroup is like a large notice board, which is accessible to all the members belonging to the group. A member, who wants to exchange his/her views/ideas information with other members, sends a specially formatted message, which is processed and interpreted as a notice to be posted on the notice board by the member’s computer, which has an appropriate software running for this purpose. After the processing of the message is cover. It can be read from any member’s computer just like a notice posted on a notice board can be read by anyone having access to the notice board.

There are two types of newsgroups-moderated and nonmoderated. In a moderated newsgroup, only selected members have the right to directly post a message to the virtual notice board, whereas in a no moderated newsgroup, any member can directly post a message to the virtual notice board. In a moderated newsgroup, a message sent by an ordinary member first goes to the computer of one of the selected members having the right to directly post a message to the notice board. The message is then checked by this member who decides whether the message is appropriate for being posted, and does any editing that might be required to improve the quality of the message. This member then posts the message on the notice board. After this only, the message becomes readable to other members.

The main idea of a moderated newsgroup is to ensure the quality of the newsgroup. As no one moderates the quality of the message of a no moderated newsgroup, anyone can post anything .However, member of such newsgroups should be careful in posting a message, because other members may react angrily by sending a flaming message in response to an ill mannered message. To address this assure, the concept of netiquette (network etiquette) has arisen, which deal with rules of framing message that will not hurt others.

Friday, October 29, 2010

WWW Browsers


To be used as a web client computer needs to be loaded with a special software tools, which is known as WWW browser (or browser in short). Browsers normally provide the following navigation facilities to help users save time when they are jumping from server to server while Internet surfing (the process of navigating the Internet to search for useful information:
1. Unlike FTP and Telnet, browsers do not require a user to remotely log in to a ser ver computer, and then to log out again when the user has finished accessing information stored on the server computer.
2. Browsers allow a user to specify and URL address for a server computer to facilitate the user to directly visit the server computer’s site, and to access information stored on it.URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. It Is an addressing scheme used by WWW browsers to locate site on the Internet.
3. Browsers allow a user to create and maintain a personal hotlist of favorite URL addresses of server computers, which the user is likely to frequently visit in future. A user’s hotlist is stored on his/her local web client computer. Browsers provide hotlist commands to allow the user to add, delete, and update URL addresses in the hotlist, and to select and URL address of a server computer from the hotlist, when the user wants to visit that server computer.
4. Many browsers have a “history” feature. These browsers maintain a history of the server computers visited in a surfing session. That is, they save (cache) in the local computer’s memory. the URL addresses of the server computers visited during a surfing session, so that if the user wants to go back to an already visited server later on (in the same surfing session)
, the link is still available in the local computer’s memory.
5. Browsers allow a user to download (copy from a server computer to the local computer’s hard disk) information in various formats (i.e. as a text file, as an HTML file ,or as a PostScript file). The downloaded information can be later (not necessarily in the same surfing session), used by the user.
For Example, downloaded information saved as a Post Script file can be later printed on a Post Script. Compatible Printer, where even graphics will be properly reproduced.

Thursday, October 28, 2010

World Wide Web-WWW

The World Wide Web(Called WWW or W3) is the most popular and promising method of accessing the Internet. The main reason for its popularity is the use of a concept called hypertext. Hypertext is a new way of information storage and retrieval, which enables authors to structure information in novel ways. An effectively designed hypertext documents can help users rapidly locate the desired type of information from the vast amount of information on the Internet. Hypertext documents enable this by using a series of Links. Link can be shown on the screen in multiple ways, such as a labeled button, highlighted text, or different color text than normal text if your computer has a color display, or author-defined graphic symbols. A link is a special type of item in a hypertext document, which connects the document to another document that provides more information about the linked item. The latter document can be anywhere on the Internet (in the same document in which the linked item is, in the same computer in which the former document is, or in another computer, which is at the other end of the world).By “connect” we mean that a user simply selects the linked item (using a mouse or key command) and the user almost immediately sees the other document on his/her computer terminal.

The concept of hypertext can be best illustrated with the help of an example. Let us assume that the screen of your computer terminal has the following hypertext document currently displayed on it:

Naveen Kumar Kumawat is the writer of this blog which provides information about the Computer Science and Internet Bazaar. At Present Kumawat is working at the OffSite Network Operation Center(OffSiteNOC),Jaipur

This hypertext document has the following two links,which are shown on the screen as highlighted (bold and underlined) texts:
1. Computer Science .Let us assume that this link connects the current document to another document, which gives detailed information about Computer Science.
2. OffSite Network Operation Center (OffSiteNOC).Let us assume that this link connects the current document to another document, which gives detailed information about OffSiteNOC and located on jaipur.

Now, if you use your mouse to click anywhere on the link Mail Bazaar of the displayed document, within a few seconds you will find yourself connected to the computer at Computer Science and displayed on your computer screen will be the documents, which gives detailed information about OffSiteNOC of Jaipur.Hypertext documents on the Internet are known as Web Pages. Web Pages are created by using a special language called Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML in Short) .HTML is a subset of the more generalized language called Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML In short), which is a